Challenges in History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifacete and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization. Where technology from different fields of science is borrow as per the need. And requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is couple with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was use as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associate with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, education concept was taken in terms of these sophisticate instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educationis discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of education is influence by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines. Programmed instruction, multimedia technologies. And the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching. And learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be trace back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory. Namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon. And utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean. By which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practic. Polish stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels. Which can be consider as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest. And the establishment of crop farming.

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